Information: A Very Short Introduction

Luciano Floridi, Oxford University Press 2010
  1. The information revolution
  2. The language of information
  3. Mathematical information
  4. Semantic information
  5. Physical information
  6. Biological information
  7. Economic information
  8. The ethics of information
Notable People: Ncolaus Copernicucs, Charles Darwin, Sigmund Freud, Alan Turing, Douglas Englebart, Donald MacCrimmon MacKay, Gregory Bateson, Claude Shannon, Bell labs,

Exaflood - neologism of a tsunami of bytes submerging the world.
Property litigation - law that deals with property disputes.
a2a and a4a - anything to anything information processes, and anywhere for anytime.
GDI - general definition of information(tripartite; three parts){information is made of data, 'well formed' means syntax abiding, 'meaningful' follows semantic of the system}.
Primary data - stored in database, used in IT systems, close or exact relation to users needs.
Secondary data - the absence of information is informative.
Metadata - describe properties (usually of primary data).
Operational data - of the whole data system and performance(about the dynamics).
Derivative data - information extracted from data for inferential evidence.
Environmental data - possibility of meaningful data outside of intelligent producer or semantic, ex. concentric rings of a trees trunk for age and dating.
Mathematical theory of communication(MTC) - properties of a channel of communication for efficient data encoding and transmission signals. Core concepts are redundancy and noise.
Unary device - single operation, produces zero information.
Redundancy - the difference between physical representation of a message and the mathematical one using no more bits than necessary. Ex compression reduce digital image size by reducing data redundancy.
Noise -

Metrics in history may be natural, circular, social, political, religious, periodic with sub periods, but all dependent on event recording systems.
Information lifecycle phases: generate/create, collect, record/store, process, distribute/transmit, consume/use, recycle/erase, generate/create. Each with it's own sub groupings.
Every newborn produces 800 MB of recorded data, information democratization.
Conceptual nature and complexity is outpacing our understanding, thus requiring a philosophy of information.
Transitioning to physical objects as informational ones, object and process are de-physicalized.
Digital assets already have profitable ecosystems, the next step is property litigations. Digital assets now have insurance for the time and skill required to attain them.
In 2008 to 2017 the average gamer was 35, playing for 13 years.
We now buy models, instead of general things.
Commodification of objects considers repairs synonymously with replacement.
Our acts of individualism are now seen as anonymous metrics by computing systems. Personal identity is now of brands, and through platforms.
However there is an inconsistency between what we choose to expose, and our wish for privacy.
The future will have a weak distinction between offline and online.
Infosphere will no longer be info of the internet, but  how we reference reality. Environment will be synchronized, delocalised, and correlated.
The divide between users and non, info rich and poor, generations, cultures, socio-economic, and geographic will increase.
The first step is to define information in terms of data.
Data could have its own semantics independently of producer.
The quantity and quality of data is limited by our ability to perceive it. Erasure of all data is through the elimination of its differences.
(The definition of data applied in three ways were poorly explained, and worded. Did not understand.)
Types of data and classifications are not standard: primary, secondary, meta-, operational, derivative.
Semantic content may exist in two senses: instructional info, and factual info; the former conveying the need for action, while the latter is limited to ones ability to make use of the fact.
Redundancy is not always a bad thing, it can counteract noise. The aim of communication is fidelity so some redundancy counterbalances the noise and ambiguity by physical processes and environment.

Chapter 3 page 40 - Some conceptual implications of the mathematical theory of